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    A Syrian refugee girl begs on the Galata Bridge on a rainy of sexual violence on the journey to Libya and rape was so commonplace that they. Africa | Libya,Sahara desert,a tuareg village in the Ubari lakes area | in the Bazaar- Kashan, Iran. North Africa | Libya girl in festival dress #world #cultures. Ten Exhilarant Dog Facts That You Do Not Know About! Do you consider you realize everything about our canine companions? Take a look at these

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    How many times is it supposed to show the same scene over and over again??? Joanne Liu, president of medical charity Medecins Sans Frontieres, added that the international community was failing refugees and migrants. März Jetzt mit x Hamster Live.

    Gender has been identified as a significant factor behind the extent of vulnerability faced by migrants and refugees.

    Research and interviews done by the Mixed Migration Centre MMC revealed that sexual and physical abuse appeared to be the most common protection risk, and women are nearly three times more likely than their male counterparts to experience or witness sexual abuse.

    The research also revealed that more than I told him to leave immediately. He refused and kept staring at me.

    Even animals are left alone to do their business. Aderonke was one of the thousands to have been exploited and abused on the way to and in Libya.

    She fled her home in Nigeria without telling her family, including her two young daughters. They did warn her of problems along the way and in Libya but Aderonke did not realise how bad things were until she embarked on a solo journey.

    I wanted to get out of Nigeria and earn some money. By the 16th century the Hafsids became increasingly caught up in the power struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire.

    After weakening control of Abbasids, Cyrenaica was under Egypt based states such as Tulunids , Ikhshidids , Ayyubids and Mamluks before Ottoman conquest in Finally Fezzan acquired independence under Awlad Muhammad dynasty after Kanem rule.

    Ottomans finally conquered Fezzan between and After a successful invasion of Tripoli by Habsburg Spain in , [42] and its handover to the Knights of St.

    John , the Ottoman admiral Sinan Pasha took control of Libya in In the s, the rulers of Fezzan gave their allegiance to the sultan, and although Ottoman authority was absent in Cyrenaica , a bey was stationed in Benghazi late in the next century to act as agent of the government in Tripoli.

    In , Turgut Reis enslaved almost the entire population of the Maltese island of Gozo , some 5, people, sending them to Libya.

    In time, real power came to rest with the pasha's corps of janissaries. For the next hundred years, a series of deys effectively ruled Tripolitania.

    The two most important Deys were Mehmed Saqizli r. Lacking direction from the Ottoman government, Tripoli lapsed into a period of military anarchy during which coup followed coup and few deys survived in office more than a year.

    One such coup was led by Turkish officer Ahmed Karamanli. Ahmed's successors proved to be less capable than himself, however, the region's delicate balance of power allowed the Karamanli.

    The —95 Tripolitanian civil war occurred in those years. Hamet's brother Yusuf r. In the early 19th century war broke out between the United States and Tripolitania, and a series of battles ensued in what came to be known as the First Barbary War and the Second Barbary War.

    By , the various treaties of the Napoleonic Wars had forced the Barbary states to give up piracy almost entirely, and Tripolitania's economy began to crumble.

    As Yusuf weakened, factions sprung up around his three sons. Civil war soon resulted. Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II sent in troops ostensibly to restore order, marking the end of both the Karamanli dynasty and an independent Tripolitania.

    Ottoman rule finally reasserted to Fezzan between and for earning income from Saharan commerce. After the Italo-Turkish War — , Italy simultaneously turned the three regions into colonies.

    From to , the territory was split into two colonies, Italian Cyrenaica and Italian Tripolitania , run by Italian governors.

    Omar Mukhtar rose to prominence as a resistance leader against Italian colonization and became a national hero despite his capture and execution on 16 September The so-called " pacification of Libya " by the Italians resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica, killing approximately one quarter of Cyrenaica's population of , In , Italy combined Cyrenaica , Tripolitania and Fezzan and adopted the name "Libya" used by the Ancient Greeks for all of North Africa except Egypt for the unified colony, with Tripoli as its capital.

    In particular, they greatly expanded Libyan railway and road networks from to , building hundreds of kilometers of new roads and railways and encouraging the establishment of new industries and dozen of new agricultural villages.

    Libya became the setting for the hard-fought North African Campaign that ultimately ended in defeat for Italy and its German ally in From to , Libya was under Allied occupation.

    In , Idris returned from exile in Cairo but declined to resume permanent residence in Cyrenaica until the removal of some aspects of foreign control in Under the terms of the peace treaty with the Allies , Italy relinquished all claims to Libya.

    On 24 December , Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya , a constitutional and hereditary monarchy under King Idris , Libya's only monarch.

    The discovery of significant oil reserves in and the subsequent income from petroleum sales enabled one of the world's poorest nations to establish an extremely wealthy state.

    Although oil drastically improved the Libyan government's finances, resentment among some factions began to build over the increased concentration of the nation's wealth in the hands of King Idris.

    The day became a national holiday known as "Vengeance Day". Widespread surveillance of the population was carried out through Gaddafi's Revolutionary Committees.

    Gaddafi also wanted to combat the strict social restrictions that had been imposed on women by the previous regime, establishing the Revolutionary Women's Formation to encourage reform.

    In , a law was introduced affirming equality of the sexes and insisting on wage parity. In , a law was passed criminalizing the marriage of any females under the age of sixteen and ensuring that a woman's consent was a necessary prerequisite for a marriage.

    On 25 October , a coup attempt was launched by some 20 military officers, mostly from the city of Misrata. Gaddafi officially passed power to the General People's Committees and henceforth claimed to be no more than a symbolic figurehead.

    The Chadian—Libyan conflict began in earnest when Libya's support of rebel forces in northern Chad escalated into an invasion.

    Later that same year, Libya and Egypt fought a four-day border war that came to be known as the Libyan-Egyptian War.

    Gaddafi financed various other groups from anti-nuclear movements to Australian trade unions. Much of Libya's income from oil, which soared in the s, was spent on arms purchases and on sponsoring dozens of paramilitaries and terrorist groups around the world.

    Libya was finally put under sanctions by the United Nations after the bombing of a commercial flight killed people.

    After the Arab Spring movements overturned the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt , Libya experienced a full-scale revolt beginning on 17 February While overthrowing the regimes in Egypt and Tunisia was a relatively quick process, Gaddafi's campaign posed significant stalls on the uprisings in Libya.

    One of Gaddafi's senior advisors responded by posting a tweet, wherein he resigned, defected, and advised Gaddafi to flee.

    On 27 February , the National Transitional Council was established to administer the areas of Libya under rebel control.

    On 10 March , France became the first state to officially recognise the council as the legitimate representative of the Libyan people.

    Pro-Gaddaffi forces were able to respond militarily to rebel pushes in Western Libya and launched a counterattack along the coast toward Benghazi, the de facto centre of the uprising.

    Organizations of the United Nations, including United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon [83] and the United Nations Human Rights Council , condemned the crackdown as violating international law, with the latter body expelling Libya outright in an unprecedented action.

    The resolution sanctioned the establishment of a no-fly zone and the use of "all means necessary" to protect civilians within Libya. More than 8, American personnel in warships and aircraft were deployed in the area.

    At least 3, targets were struck in 14, strike sorties, of them in Tripoli and in Brega. By 22 August , rebel fighters had entered Tripoli and occupied Green Square , [92] which they renamed Martyrs' Square in honour of those killed since 17 February On 20 October , the last heavy fighting of the uprising came to an end in the city of Sirte.

    The Battle of Sirte was both the last decisive battle and the last one in general of the First Libyan Civil War where Gaddafi was captured and killed.

    The defeat of loyalist forces was celebrated on 23 October , three days after the fall of Sirte. At least 30, Libyans died in the civil war.

    Since the defeat of loyalist forces, Libya has been torn among numerous rival, armed militias affiliated with distinct regions, cities and tribes, while the central government has been weak and unable effectively to exert its authority over the country.

    Competing militias have pitted themselves against each other in a political struggle between Islamist politicians and their opponents.

    On 8 August , the National Transitional Council officially handed power over to the wholly elected General National Congress , which was then tasked with the formation of an interim government and the drafting of a new Libyan Constitution to be approved in a general referendum.

    On 25 August , in what Reuters reported as "the most blatant sectarian attack" since the end of the civil war, unnamed organized assailants bulldozed a Sufi mosque with graves, in broad daylight in the center of the Libyan capital Tripoli.

    It was the second such razing of a Sufi site in two days. On 11 September , Islamist militants mounted a surprise attack on the American consulate in Benghazi, killing the U.

    Christopher Stevens , and three others. The incident generated outrage in the United States and Libya. Abushagur was ousted after failing a second time to win parliamentary approval for a new cabinet.

    In June , elections were held to the House of Representatives , a new legislative body intended to take over from the General National Congress.

    The elections were marred by violence and low turnout, with voting stations closed in some areas. Libya has been riven by conflict between the rival parliaments since mid Tribal militias and jihadist groups have taken advantage of the power vacuum.

    Most notably, radical Islamist fighters seized Derna in and Sirte in in the name of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

    In January , meetings were held with the aim to find a peaceful agreement between the rival parties in Libya. The so-called Geneva-Ghadames talks were supposed to bring the GNC and the Tobruk government together at one table to find a solution of the internal conflict.

    However, the GNC actually never participated, a sign that internal division not only affected the "Tobruk Camp", but also the "Tripoli Camp".

    Meanwhile, terrorism within Libya has steadily increased, affecting also neighbouring countries. The terrorist attack against the Bardo Museum on 18 March , was reportedly carried on by two Libyan-trained militants.

    In July SRSG Leon reported to the UN Security Council on the progress of the negotiations, which at that point had just achieved a political agreement on 11 July setting out "a comprehensive framework…includ[ing] guiding principles…institutions and decision-making mechanisms to guide the transition until the adoption of a permanent constitution.

    A peaceful transition will only succeed in Libya through a significant and coordinated effort in supporting a future Government of National Accord…".

    Talks, negotiations and dialogue continued on during mid at various international locations, culminating at Skhirat in Morocco in early September.

    Chaos-ridden Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe. More than , migrants have reached Italy by boat since In May Libya's rival leaders agreed to hold parliamentary and presidential elections following a meeting in Paris.

    In June , forces allied to Libya's UN-recognized Government of National Accord successfully captured Gharyan, a strategic town where military commander Khalifa Haftar and his fighters were based.

    Most of the cadets were teenagers and none of them were armed. In February, these drones stationed in Libya were moved to an air base near Siwa in the western Egyptian desert.

    Libya is bound to the north by the Mediterranean Sea , the west by Tunisia and Algeria , the southwest by Niger , the south by Chad , the southeast by Sudan , and the east by Egypt.

    The climate is mostly extremely dry and desertlike in nature. However, the northern regions enjoy a milder Mediterranean climate.

    Natural hazards come in the form of hot, dry, dust-laden sirocco known in Libya as the gibli. This is a southern wind blowing from one to four days in spring and autumn.

    There are also dust storms and sandstorms. Oases can also be found scattered throughout Libya, the most important of which are Ghadames and Kufra.

    The Libyan Desert , which covers much of Libya, is one of the most arid and sun-baked places on earth. At Uweinat , as of [update] the last recorded rainfall was in September There are a few scattered uninhabited small oases, usually linked to the major depressions, where water can be found by digging to a few feet in depth.

    In the west there is a widely dispersed group of oases in unconnected shallow depressions, the Kufra group, consisting of Tazerbo, Rebianae and Kufra.

    Slightly further to the south are the massifs of Arkenu, Uweinat, and Kissu. These granite mountains are ancient, having formed long before the sandstones surrounding them.

    Eastern Uweinat the highest point in the Libyan Desert is a raised sandstone plateau adjacent to the granite part further west. The plain to the north of Uweinat is dotted with eroded volcanic features.

    With the discovery of oil in the s also came the discovery of a massive aquifer underneath much of Libya. The water in this aquifer pre-dates the last ice ages and the Sahara Desert itself.

    The legislature of Libya is the unicameral House of Representatives which meets in Tobruk. The former legislature was the General National Congress , which had seats.

    On 7 July , Libyans voted in parliamentary elections , the first free elections in almost 40 years. As of January , there was mounting public pressure on the National Congress to set up a drafting body to create a new constitution.

    Congress had not yet decided whether the members of the body would be elected or appointed. The new legislature allocates 30 seats for women, will have seats overall with individuals able to run as members of political parties and allows Libyans of foreign nationalities to run for office.

    Following the elections, Freedom House improved Libya's rating from Not Free to Partly Free, and now considers the country to be an electoral democracy.

    Gaddafi merged civil and sharia courts in Civil courts now employ sharia judges who sit in regular courts of appeal and specialise in sharia appellate cases.

    An agreement to form a unified interim government was signed on 17 December Libya's foreign policies have fluctuated since As a Kingdom, Libya maintained a definitively pro-Western stance, and was recognized as belonging to the conservative traditionalist bloc in the League of Arab States the present-day Arab League , of which it became a member in Although the government supported Arab causes, including the Moroccan and Algerian independence movements, it took little active part in the Arab-Israeli dispute or the tumultuous inter-Arab politics of the s and early s.

    The Kingdom was noted for its close association with the West, while it steered a conservative course at home. After the coup , Muammar Gaddafi closed American and British bases and partly nationalized foreign oil and commercial interests in Libya.

    Relations with the West were strained by a series of incidents for most of Gaddafi's rule, [] [] [] including the killing of London policewoman Yvonne Fletcher , the bombing of a West Berlin nightclub frequented by U.

    Gaddafi's decision to abandon the pursuit of weapons of mass destruction after the Iraq War saw Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein overthrown and put on trial led to Libya being hailed as a success for Western soft power initiatives in the War on Terror.

    Libyan authorities rejected European Union's plans aimed at stopping migration from Libya. Libya's previous national army was defeated in the Libyan Civil War and disbanded.

    The Tobruk based House of Representatives who claim to be the legitimate government of Libya have attempted to reestablish a military known as the Libyan National Army.

    Led by Khalifa Haftar , they control much of eastern Libya. As of November , it was deemed to be still in the embryonic stage of development.

    Militias have so far refused to be integrated into a central security force. Historically, the area of Libya was considered three provinces or states , Tripolitania in the northwest, Barka Cyrenaica in the east, and Fezzan in the southwest.

    It was the conquest by Italy in the Italo-Turkish War that united them in a single political unit. Since , Libya has been divided into 22 districts Shabiyat :.

    According to Human Rights Watch annual report , journalists are still being targeted by the armed groups in Libya.

    The organization added that Libya has very low rank in the Press Freedom Index as it occupied out of countries. Libya faces many structural problems including a lack of institutions, weak governance, and chronic structural unemployment.

    The country joined OPEC in In the early s, Libya was one of the wealthiest countries in the world; its GDP per capita was higher than some developed countries.

    In the early s officials of the Jamahiriya era carried out economic reforms to reintegrate Libya into the global economy.

    In Saif al-Islam Gaddafi , the second-eldest son of Muammar Gaddafi, was involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which sought to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area.

    In August it was estimated that it would take at least 10 years to rebuild Libya's infrastructure. Even before the war, Libya's infrastructure was in a poor state due to "utter neglect" by Gaddafi's administration, according to the NTC.

    By October , the average oil production has surpassed 1. Oil production has fallen from 1. Libya is a large country with a relatively small population, and the population is concentrated very narrowly along the coast.

    Libya has a population of about 6. The majority of the Libyan population is today identified as Arab , that is, Arabic -speaking and Arab-cultured. Berber Libyans, those who retain Berber language and Berber culture, comprise a minority.

    There are about tribes and clans in Libya. Family life is important for Libyan families, the majority of which live in apartment blocks and other independent housing units, with precise modes of housing depending on their income and wealth.

    Although the Arab Libyans traditionally lived nomadic lifestyles in tents, they have now settled in various towns and cities.

    An unknown small number of Libyans still live in the desert as their families have done for centuries.

    Most of the population has occupations in industry and services , and a small percentage is in agriculture. According to the UNHCR, there were around 8, registered refugees, 5, unregistered refugees, and 7, asylum seekers of various origins in Libya in January Additionally, 47, Libyan nationals were internally displaced and 46, were internally displaced returnees.

    Today, the great majority of Libya's inhabitants are Arabic-speaking Muslims of mixed descent, with many also tracing their ancestry to the Banu Sulaym tribe, beside Turkish and Berber ethnicities.

    The Turkish minority are often called " Kouloughlis " and are concentrated in and around villages and towns. Most Italian settlers , at their height numbering over half a million, left after Italian Libya's independence in More repatriated in after the accession of Muammar Gaddafi, but a few hundred of them returned in the s.

    Historically, Libya has been a host state for millions of low- and high-skilled Egyptian migrants, in particular. It is difficult to estimate the total number of immigrants in Libya as there are often differences between census figures, official counts and usually more accurate unofficial estimates.

    In the census, around , foreign nationals were resident in Libya out of a population of over 5. Almost half of these were Egyptians, followed by Sudanese and Palestinian immigrants.

    If consular records prior to the revolution are used to estimate the immigrant population, as many as 2 million Egyptian migrants were recorded by the Egyptian embassy in Tripoli in , followed by 87, Tunisians, and 68, Moroccans by their respective embassies.

    Turkey recorded the evacuation of 25, workers during the uprising. This was a religious revival adapted to desert life.

    Its zawaaya lodges were found in Tripolitania and Fezzan , but Senussi influence was strongest in Cyrenaica. Rescuing the region from unrest and anarchy, the Senussi movement gave the Cyrenaican tribal people a religious attachment and feelings of unity and purpose.

    Gaddafi asserted that he was a devout Muslim, and his government was taking a role in supporting Islamic institutions and in worldwide proselytising on behalf of Islam.

    Since the fall of Gaddafi , ultra-conservative strains of Islam have reasserted themselves in places. Derna in eastern Libya, historically a hotbed of jihadist thought, came under the control of militants aligned with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in There are small foreign communities of Christians.

    Coptic Orthodox Christianity , which is the Christian Church of Egypt, is the largest and most historical Christian denomination in Libya.

    There are about 60, Egyptian Copts in Libya. There are an estimated 40, Roman Catholics in Libya who are served by two Bishops, one in Tripoli serving the Italian community and one in Benghazi serving the Maltese community.

    There is also a small Anglican community, made up mostly of African immigrant workers in Tripoli; it is part of the Anglican Diocese of Egypt.

    People have been arrested on suspicion of being Christian missionaries , as proselytising is illegal. Libya was once the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least BC.

    In Giado some Jews died of weakness, hunger, and disease. In , Jews who were not in the concentration camps were heavily restricted in their economic activity and all men between 18 and 45 years were drafted for forced labor.

    In the three years after November , more than Jews were murdered, and hundreds more wounded, in a series of pogroms. Upon Libya's independence in , most of the Jewish community emigrated.

    Many Arabic speaking Libyans consider themselves as part of a wider Arab community. This was strengthened by the spread of Pan-Arabism in the midth century, and their reach to power in Libya where they instituted Arabic as the only official language of the state.

    Under their dictatorship the teaching and even use of indigenous Berber language was strictly forbidden. Both the spoken Arabic dialects and Berber, still retain words from Italian, that were acquired before and during the Libia Italiana period.

    Libyans have a heritage in the traditions of the previously nomadic Bedouin Arabic speakers and sedentary Amazigh tribes. Most Libyans associate themselves with a particular family name originating from tribal or conquest based, typically from Ottoman forefathers, heritage.

    There are few theaters or art galleries due to the decades of cultural repression under the Qaddafi regime and lack of infrastructure development under the regime of dictatorship.

    The tradition of folk culture is still alive and well, with troupes performing music and dance at frequent festivals, both in Libya and abroad.

    A large number of Libyan television stations are devoted to political review, Islamic topics and cultural phenomena. A number of TV stations air various styles of traditional Libyan music.

    Libyan television broadcasts air programs mostly in Arabic though usually have time slots for English and French programs. Many Libyans frequent the country's beach and they also visit Libya's archaeological sites—especially Leptis Magna , which is widely considered to be one of the best preserved Roman archaeological sites in the world.

    There are no railway services in Libya, but these are planned for construction in the near future see rail transport in Libya. Libya's capital, Tripoli , has many museums and archives.

    Libyan cuisine is a mixture of the different Italian , Bedouin and traditional Arab culinary influences. Bazeen , a dish made from barley flour and served with red tomato sauce, is customarily eaten communally, with several people sharing the same dish, usually by hand.

    This dish is commonly served at traditional weddings or festivities. Asida is a sweet version of Bazeen, made from white flour and served with a mix of honey, ghee or butter.

    Another favorite way to serve Asida is with rub fresh date syrup and olive oil. Usban is animal tripe stitched and stuffed with rice and vegetables cooked in tomato based soup or steamed.

    Shurba is a red tomato sauce-based soup, usually served with small grains of pasta. A very common snack eaten by Libyans is known as khubs bi' tun , literally meaning "bread with tuna fish", usually served as a baked baguette or pita bread stuffed with tuna fish that has been mixed with harissa chili sauce and olive oil.

    Many snack vendors prepare these sandwiches and they can be found all over Libya. Libyan restaurants may serve international cuisine, or may serve simpler fare such as lamb, chicken, vegetable stew, potatoes and macaroni.

    Alcohol consumption is illegal in the entire country. There are four main ingredients of traditional Libyan food: olives and olive oil , dates , grains and milk.

    Dates are harvested, dried and can be eaten as they are, made into syrup or slightly fried and eaten with bsisa and milk. After eating, Libyans often drink black tea.

    This is normally repeated a second time for the second glass of tea , and in the third round of tea, it is served with roasted peanuts or roasted almonds known as shay bi'l-luz mixed with the tea in the same glass.

    Libya's population includes 1. The adult literacy rate in was As of [update] , this number has increased to more than ,, with an extra 70, enrolled in the higher technical and vocational sector.

    Since the number of universities has grown from two to nine and after their introduction in , the number of higher technical and vocational institutes currently stands at 84 with 12 public universities.

    Although before a small number of private institutions were given accreditation, the majority of Libya's higher education has always been financed by the public budget.

    In the budget allocation for education represented Football is the most popular sport in Libya. Although the national team has never won a major competition or qualified for a World Cup, there is still lots of passion for the sport and the quality of football is improving.

    This represented a 2 percent increase over a year period. Another source, however, considered these figures far too low.

    Reasoning from census figures and making allowances for full- and part-time, seasonal, paid, and unpaid employment, these researchers argued convincingly that women formed more than 20 percent of the total economically active Libyan population.

    For rural areas their figure was 46 percent, far higher than official census numbers for workers who in most cases were not only unpaid but not even considered as employed.

    Among non-agricultural women, those who were educated and skilled were overwhelmingly employed as teachers. The next highest category of educated and skilled women ware nurses and those found in the health care field.

    Others areas that were open to women included administrative and clerical work in banks, department stores, and government offices and domestic services.

    Women were found in ever larger numbers as nurses and midwives, but even so, Libyan health care facilities suffered from a chronic shortage of staff.

    By contrast, in clerical and secretarial jobs, the problem was not a shortage of labour but a deep-seated cultural bias against the intermingling of men and women in the workplace.

    During the s, the attraction of employment as domestics tended to decline, as educated and ambitious women turned to more lucrative occupations.

    To fill the gap, Libyan households sought to hire foreigners, particularly Egyptians and Tunisians. Light industry, especially cottage-style, was yet another outlet for female labour, a direct result of Libya's labour shortage.

    Despite these employment outlets and gains, female participation in the work force of the s remained small, and many socially female jobs were filled by foreign women.

    Also, in spite of significant increases in female enrollments in the educational system, including university level, few women were found, even as technicians, in such traditionally male fields as medicine, engineering, and law.

    Non-urban women constituted a quite significant, if largely invisible, proportion of the rural work force. According to the census, there were only l4, economically active women out of a total of , rural females older than age In all likelihood, however, many women engaged in agricultural or domestic tasks worked as unpaid members of family groups and hence were not regarded as gainfully employed, accounting to at least in part for the low census count.

    Estimates of actual female rural employment in the mid s, paid and unpaid ranged upward of 86,, as compared with 96, men in the rural work force.

    In addition to agriculture, both rural and nomadic women engaged in the weaving of rugs and carpets, another sizable category of unpaid and unreported labor.

    Beginning in , the revolutionary government passed a series of laws regulating female employment - equal pay for equal work and qualifications became a fundamental precept.

    Working mothers enjoyed a range of benefits designed to encourage them to continue working even after marriage and childbirth, including cash bonuses for the first child and free day care centres.

    A woman could retire at age fifty-five, and she was entitled to a pension. Women are free to engage in the private business and finance sectors, and banks to not require the consent of the husband to obtain a loan.

    In May , the New York Times reported during the Libyan civil war that the rebels had begun rolling back this progress as their size increased.

    One Libyan woman, a year-old therapist, quit the rebel National Transitional Council saying when the revolution started, women had a big role, but it had disappeared.

    Under King Idris , educating women was considered suspicious. Criticized by opponents of the government for not creating a mortgage market, [13] women obtained equal rights as men to own and have independent use of their property.

    Following the revolution in , universal healthcare services were created through the National Social Insurance Institute , with women having equal access.

    Libya had one of the best healthcare systems in Africa before the U. By the s relations within the family and between the sexes, along with all other aspects of Libyan life, had begun to show notable change.

    As the mass media popularized new ideas, new perceptions and practices appeared. Foreign settlers and foreign workers frequently embodied ideas and values distinctively different from those traditional in the country.

    In particular, the perceptions of Libyans in everyday contact with Europeans were affected. The continued and accelerating process of urbanization had broken old kinship ties and association with ancestral rural communities.

    At the same time, opportunities for upward social movement have increased, and petroleum wealth and the development plans of the revolutionary government have made many new kinds of employment available thus opening up more well paid jobs for women especially among the educated young.

    Many of these educated and increasingly independent young women preferred to set up their own households at marriage, rather than live with their in-laws.

    In addition social security, free medical care, education, and other appurtenances of the welfare state had lessened the dependence of the aged on their children in village communities and had almost eliminated it in the cities.

    As of the late 20th century the regime had sought to introduce women into the armed forces. In the Libya's new military academy began training women, training thousands since.

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